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Laboratory Work

Budo Specialist Hospital Lab Scientists…

Testing Services

Today, at BSH, our lab services offerings encompass a wide range of investigations from routine tests to highly specialized ones, not offered by other hospitals or laboratories. Typically, most specialized investigations require huge capital investments in equipment, in addition to requiring highly skilled and trained technical staff to undertake these investigations.


Larger specimens include whole organs or parts thereof, which are removed during surgical operations. Examples include a uterus after a hysterectomy, the large bowel after a colectomy or tonsils after a tonsillectomy.

  1. Pieces of tissue rather than whole organs are removed as biopsies, which often require smaller surgical procedures that can be performed whilst the patient is still awake but sedated. Biopsies include excision biopsies, in which tissue is removed with a scalpel (e.g. a skin excision for a suspicious mole) or a core biopsy, in which a needle is inserted into a suspicious mass to remove a slither or core of tissue that can be examined under the microscope (e.g. to investigate a breast lump).
  2. Fluid and very small pieces of tissue (individual cells rather than groups of cells, e.g. within fluid from around the lung) can be obtained via a fine needle aspiration (FNA). This is performed using a thinner needle than that used in a core biopsy, but with a similar technique. This type of material is usually liquid rather than solid, and is submitted for cytology rather than histology


Gynaecological: Cervical LBC tests for early detection of cervical cancer

  • Breast: testing the breast tissue for cancer
    Laboratory Activities

    Laboratory Activities

  • Thyroid
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Soft tissue, bone and skin
  • Respiratory such as bronchial smears and washings
  • Lymph nodes
  • Urinary tract
  • Special stains and ancillary tests: Papanicolaou, Giemsa and immunoperoxidase, stains for fungi, bacteria and parasites

Chemical Pathology

Our chemical pathology division provides a wide range of services based on the chemical analysis of blood, body fluids and tissues.

Biochemistry tests: kidney and liver function, glucose, cholesterol and iron.

  • Endocrinology tests: hormones, menopausal, infertility and hirsutism screens, semen analysis.
  • Pharmacology: testing and interpretation for a wide range of therapeutic drugs.
  • Toxicology: screening of drugs of abuse and other toxic substances that could be used for poisoning.
  • Metabolic: vitamin testing, testing of kidney stones and testing for inherited metabolic diseases.
  • Cancer screening and monitoring: faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer, monitoring cancers of prostate, breast, colon, ovary and other tissues using tumour markers.
  • Cardiac risk factors and Cardiac markers .


Services Provided

The Haematology and Blood Transfusion Department routinely perform the following tests. One or more of these tests may be requested and they are usually performed on the day that the sample arrives in the laboratory.


The FBC (Full Blood Count) is a routine investigation that gives information on a person’s blood cells. This can be useful as a screening test in many different situations, eg the WBC (White Blood Cell) count can indicate a response to infection and the Hb (Haemoglobin) can indicate the presence of anaemia.

Reticulocyte Count

The reticulocyte count is a measure of the number of immature RBC (Red Blood Cells) circulating in the blood. This can give an indication of a response to treatment for anaemia.


The ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) is a non-specific blood test that may be raised in a variety of conditions but is not usually diagnostic on its own. It is used as a screening test for general health.

Blood Film Examination

Depending on the FBC results, a blood film may be prepared and stained for microscopic examination by Medical Laboratory Scientist. Any films requiring a clinical interpretation will be referred to a Consultant Haematologist for comment.

Clotting Screen

The clotting screen is a group of tests designed to detect possible problems with a person’s blood coagulation / clotting mechanism. These tests can indicate if a person has a tendency to bleed.


The INR (International Normalised Ratio) is a test used to monitor a person’s coagulation / clotting mechanism when on the anticoagulant drug Warfarin. Warfarin may be prescribed for a number of conditions including DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) and AF (Atrial Fibrillation).

Antenatal Haemoglobinopathy Screening

The department performs screening for unusual haemoglobins – particularly in antenatal patients. Patients at risk of a ‘haemoglobinopathy’ will receive information at antenatal booking.

Group and Screen

The group and screen is performed by the Blood Transfusion Department and is used to identify a person’s blood group and antibody profile. This is useful for patients who may require a blood transfusion.

Compatibility Testing

Compatibility testing (or cross match) of blood for transfusion is performed in the Blood Transfusion Department. A system is in place to ensure that all blood transfusions have full traceability from the donor to the recipient.


Detection of parasites, fungi, bacteria and a variety of cells associated with disease. Different staining techniques are available depending on the application.

  • Culture of bacteria or fungi on a variety of media and subsequent identification of these organisms.
  • Susceptibility testing
  • Antigen detection tests. These can be viral or bacterial. Rapid Elisa tests are used.
  • Rapid turnaround time on mycobacterium culture and susceptibility testing using state of the art MGIT technology (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube).


Herpes Simplex Virus


Laboratory Activities

  • Epstein Barr virus serology
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Rubella
  • HIV combo
  • Autoimmune profiles
  • Rheumatoid arthritis profiles
  • ASO Titers
  • Cardiolipin
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonnococcal antibodies
  • Schistosoma antibodies
  • Syphillis serology
  • Toxoplasma
    Laboratory Activities

    Laboratory Activities

  • Rickettsial antibodies
  • Thyroid antibodies
  • Widal
  • Hepatitis studies
  • Quantiferon TB
  • Cotinine
  • Helicobactor Pylori
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Varicella

DNA Testing Services

Our DNA diagnostic services include the following:

DNA Paternity Test

A DNA paternity test determines whether a tested man is the biological father of a tested child. If you are in need of a paternity test for legal reasons or just peace of mind, BSH offers a wide variety of tests to fit your needs.

Adoption DNA Testing

DDC offers DNA testing services for people involved in adoption. We have specialized services for clients who are going through domestic or international adoptions, are hoping for reunification with biological family members, or are facilitating parental relinquishment and peace of mind.

DNA Grandparentage Test

A DNA grandparentage test, performed in the absence of an alleged father, determines the relationship between a child and the parents of the alleged father.

DNA Siblingship Test

A siblingship test determines whether two children share one or both parents.

Twin Zygosity Test

A twin zygosity test determines whether twins are fraternal or identical.

Y-STR Paternal Lineage

A Y-STR paternal lineage test determines whether two or more males are related through a paternal line.

mtDNA Maternal Lineage

A mitochondrial DNA maternal linage test determines whether two or more individuals are related through a maternal line.

DNA Banking

An individual’s DNA can be stored in a secure environment so that it is available for a future DNA test if needed.